"Measure to adapt receptors to reduce the adverse consequences in the event of a flood actions on buildings, public networks, etc..." (EC 2013: Guidance for Reporting under the Floods Directive)

EXAMPLE: MOSE system of mobile flood barriers, Venice (IT)

Venice, Italy, is a city famous around the world for not only its stunning canals and historic buildings, but also for its high vulnerability to flooding. The MOSE system of mobile flood barriers is a bold initiative intended reduce risk, preserve the cherished cityscape, and protect the entire Venice Lagoon from flooding.

EXAMPLE: Seawall at Skara Brae, Scotland (UK)

Skara Brae is one of Scotland’s most significant and famous UNESCO World Heritage Sites and it has been under constant threat of damage due to coastal erosion for decades. Fortunately, a seawall protects the base of this archaeological site from the erosive power of waves and storm events.

EXAMPLE: Dune rehabilitation in Praia de Faro (PT)

A construction of an elevated wooden pathway alongshore and cross-shore of about 1500 m, and the construction of a dune fences were implemented in the coastal town of Praia de Faro (Portugal). The fences helped to trap sand in the dune areas leading to a growth of the dune system. The wooden path played also an important role in the dune recovery.

Cliff stabilization

Cliff stabilization is a coastal management erosion control technique. Generally speaking, the cliffs are stabilised through anchoring (the use of terracing, planting, wiring or concrete supports to hold cliffs in place), smothing the slope, or dewatering (drainage of excess rainwater to reduce water-logging).

Shingle beach restoration

Shingle beaches are mobile structures developed in high-energy environments that are very efficient at absorbing and dissipating wave energy. Restoration of shingle beaches on the foreshore can create a more desirable morphological profile that is better able to dissipate wave energy and attenuate storm surge.

Drainage system management

Urban drainage systems need to be able to deal with both wastewater and stormwater whilst minimizing problems to human life and the environment, including flooding. Urbanization has a significant effect on the impact of drainage flows on the environment: for example, where rain falls on impermeable artificial surfaces and is drained by a system of pipes, it passes much more rapidly to the receiving water body than it would have done when the catchment was in a natural state. This causes a more rapid build-up of flows and higher peaks, increasing the risk of flooding (and pollution) in the receiving water. Many urban drainage systems simply move a local flooding problem to another location and may increase the problem. In many developed counties there is a move away from piped systems, towards more natural systems for draining stormwater.

Seawall or Revetment

A seawall or a revetment is a structure made of concrete, masonry or sheet piles, built parallel to the shore at the transition between the beach and the mainland or dune, to protect the inland area against wave action and prevent coastal erosion. Seawalls are usually massive structures designed to resist storm surges.

Dry proofing - sealing and shielding

Dryproofing makes a building watertight and substantially impermeable to floodwaters (FEMA, 1993). Compared to wetproofing, dryproofing requires a more reinforced building structure to withstand floodwater pressures and impact forces caused by debris. Other important factors to be considered in dryproofing are watertight closures for doors and windows, prevention of floodwater seepage through walls, and check valves to prevent reverse flows from sewage.

Wet proofing - Sealable buildings

Wetproofing (or wet floodproofing) is different from dryproofing in that it allows flood water to enter a structure, though both floodproofing methods have the same purpose, that of preventing damage to the structure and its contents and creating no additional threats to public safety (FEMA, 1993).

Dune strengthening, rehabilitation and restoration

Sand dunes are wind forms elements on sandy coasts and represent a natural coastal protection measure. Natural processes like erosion and human interference (like coastal protection measures, changing coastal processes, tourism) can have a negative impact on dunes. Rehabilitation with feeding sand or planting vegetation can reinforce the dunes.